\vspace{0.45cm} \begin{minipage}[c]{0.46\textwidth} \textbf{Problem Formulation:} \begin{itemize} \item Pretrained model $M$ for task $T: X \rightarrow Y$ \item How to most efficiently fine-tune $M$ for new task $T': X' \rightarrow Y$ where $\mathcal{P}(X) \neq \mathcal{P}(X')$ \item \textbf{Baseline:} Fine-tuning \begin{itemize} \item slow for large models \item overfitting (small $X'$, many parameters) \end{itemize} \end{itemize} \end{minipage} % \begin{minipage}[c]{0.49\textwidth} \begin{center} \newcommand{\pacsheight}{2.5cm} \textbf{Example (PACS~\blue{[1]} dataset and variants)} \begin{minipage}[c]{0.16\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_1.png} \centering \scriptsize \blue{Photo (base)} \end{minipage}~~~ \begin{minipage}[c]{0.14\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_2.png} \centering \scriptsize Noisy \end{minipage}~ \begin{minipage}[c]{0.14\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_3.png} \centering \scriptsize Blurry \end{minipage}~ \begin{minipage}[c]{0.14\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_4.png} \centering \scriptsize Painting \end{minipage}~ \begin{minipage}[c]{0.14\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_5.png} \centering \scriptsize Cartoon \end{minipage}~ \begin{minipage}[c]{0.14\textwidth} \centering \includegraphics[height=\pacsheight]{pacs_6.png} \centering \scriptsize Sketch \end{minipage} \end{center} \end{minipage}